10 February 2006

Sejarah Valentine's Day

Sebenarnya ada banyak versi yang tersebar berkenaan dengan asal-usul dari Valentine's Day, namun pada umumnya kebanyakan orang mengetahui tentang peristiwa sejarah yang dimulai ketika dahulu kala bangsa Romawi memperingati suatu hari besar setiap tanggal 15 Februari yang dinamakan Lupercalia. Peringatan hari besar ini dirayakan untuk menghormati Juno (Tuhan Wanita) dan Perkawinan, serta Pah (Tuhan dari Alam). pada saat itu digambarkan orang-orang muda (laki-laki dan wanita) memilih pasangannya secara diundi, kemudian mereka bertukar hadiah sebagai pernyataan cinta kasih. Dengan diikuti berbagai macam pesta dan hura-hura bersama pasangannya masing-masing.

Namun untuk lebih jelas dan terperinci mari kita lihat kutipan dari beberapa sumber sejarah yang dapat dipercaya. The World Book Encyclopedia (1998) melukiskan banyaknya versi mengenai Valentine’s Day : “Some trace it to an ancient Roman festival called Lupercalia. Other experts connect the event with one or more saints of the early Christian church. Still others link it with an old English belief that birds choose their mates on February 14. Valentine's Day probably came from a combination of all three of those sources--plus the belief that spring is a time for lovers.” kutipan lainnya menjelaskan "The origins of Valentine's Day trace back to the ancient Roman celebration of Lupercalia. Held on February 15, Lupercalia honored the gods Lupercus and Faunus, as well as the legendary founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus. In addition to a bountiful feast, Lupercalia festivities are purported to have included the pairing of young women and men. Men would draw women's names from a box, and each couple would be paired until next year's celebration. While this pairing of couples set the tone for today's holiday, it wasn't called "Valentine's Day" until a priest named Valentine came along. Valentine, a romantic at heart, disobeyed Emperor Claudius II's decree that soldiers remain bachelors. Claudius handed down this decree believing that soldiers would be distracted and unable to concentrate on fighting if they were married or engaged. Valentine defied the emperor and secretly performed marriage ceremonies. As a result of his defiance, Valentine was put to death on February 14. After Valentine's death, he was named a saint. As Christianity spread through Rome, the priests moved Lupercalia from February 15 to February 14 and renamed it St. Valentine's Day to honor Saint Valentine. What's Cupid Got to Do with It? According to Roman mythology, Cupid was the son of Venus, the goddess of love and beauty. Cupid was known to cause people to fall in love by shooting them with his magical arrows. But Cupid didn't just cause others to fall in love - he himself fell deeply in love. As legend has it, Cupid fell in love with a mortal maiden named Psyche. Cupid married Psyche, but Venus, jealous of Psyche's beauty, forbade her daughter-in-law to look at Cupid. Psyche, of course, couldn't resist temptation and sneaked a peek at her handsome husband. As punishment, Venus demanded that she perform three hard tasks, the last of which caused Psyche's death. Cupid brought Psyche back to life and the gods, moved by their love, granted Pysche immortality. Cupid thus represents the heart and Psyche the (struggles of the) human soul."
Perayaan Lupercalia adalah rangkaian upacara pensucian di masa Romawi Kuno (13-18 Februari). Dua hari pertama, dipersembahkan untuk dewi cinta (queen of feverish love) Juno Februata. Pada hari ini, para pemuda mengundi nama–nama gadis di dalam kotak. Lalu setiap pemuda mengambil nama secara acak dan gadis yang namanya keluar harus menjadi pasangannya selama setahun untuk senang-senang dan obyek hiburan. Pada 15 Februari, mereka meminta perlindungan dewa Lupercalia dari gangguan srigala. Selama upacara ini, kaum muda melecut orang dengan kulit binatang dan wanita berebut untuk dilecut karena anggapan lecutan itu akan membuat mereka menjadi lebih subur.

Ketika agama Kristen Katolik menjadi agama negara di Roma, penguasa Romawi dan para tokoh agama katolik Roma mengadopsi upacara ini dan mewarnainya dengan nuansa Kristiani, antara lain mengganti nama-nama gadis dengan nama-nama Paus atau Pastor. Di antara pendukungnya adalah Kaisar Konstantine dan Paus Gregory I (lihat: The Encyclopedia Britannica, sub judul: Christianity). Agar lebih mendekatkan lagi pada ajaran Kristen, pada 496 M Paus Gelasius I menjadikan upacara Romawi Kuno ini menjadi Hari Perayaan Gereja dengan nama Saint Valentine’s Day untuk menghormati St.Valentine yang kebetulan mati pada 14 Februari (lihat: The World Book Encyclopedia 1998). The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. XV sub judul St. Valentine menuliskan ada 3 nama Valentine yang mati pada 14 Februari, seorang di antaranya dilukiskan sebagai yang mati pada masa Romawi. Namun demikian tidak pernah ada penjelasan siapa “St. Valentine” termaksud, juga dengan kisahnya yang tidak pernah diketahui ujung-pangkalnya karena tiap sumber mengisahkan cerita yang berbeda. Menurut versi pertama, Kaisar Claudius II memerintahkan menangkap dan memenjarakan St. Valentine karena menyatakan tuhannya adalah Isa Al-Masih dan menolak menyembah tuhan-tuhan orang Romawi. Orang-orang yang mendambakan doa St.Valentine lalu menulis surat dan menaruhnya di terali penjaranya.

Versi kedua menceritakan bahwa Kaisar Claudius II menganggap tentara muda bujangan lebih tabah dan kuat dalam medan peperangan dari pada orang yang menikah. Kaisar lalu melarang para pemuda untuk menikah, namun St.Valentine melanggarnya dan diam-diam menikahkan banyak pemuda sehingga iapun ditangkap dan dihukum gantung pada 14 Februari 269 M (lihat: The World Book Encyclopedia, 1998). Kebiasaan mengirim kartu Valentine itu sendiri tidak ada kaitan langsung dengan St. Valentine. Pada 1415 M ketika the Duke of Orleans dipenjara di Tower of London, pada perayaan hari gereja mengenang St.Valentine 14 Februari, ia mengirim puisi kepada istrinya di Perancis. Kemudian Geoffrey Chaucer, penyair Inggris mengkaitkannya dengan musim kawin burung dalam puisinya (lihat: The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.12 hal.242 , The World Book Encyclopedia, 1998).

Lalu bagaimana dengan ucapan “Be My Valentine?” Ken Sweiger dalam artikel “Should Biblical Christians Observe It?” (www.korrnet.org) mengatakan kata “Valentine” berasal dari Latin yang berarti : “Yang Maha Perkasa, Yang Maha Kuat dan Yang Maha Kuasa”. Kata ini ditujukan kepada Nimrod dan Lupercus, tuhan orang Romawi. Maka disadari atau tidak, -tulis Ken Sweiger- jika kita meminta orang menjadi “to be my Valentine”, hal itu berarti melakukan perbuatan yang dimurkai Tuhan (karena memintanya menjadi “Sang Maha Kuasa”) dan menghidupkan budaya pemujaan kepada berhala. Adapun Cupid (berarti: the desire), si bayi bersayap dengan panah adalah putra Nimrod “the hunter” dewa Matahari. Disebut tuhan Cinta, karena ia rupawan sehingga diburu wanita bahkan ia pun berzina dengan ibunya sendiri! Namun dari berbagai versi legenda tadi sejarah yang paling diterima oleh berbagai sumber publikasi sejarah adalah sebagai berikut:
>> NB: Dikutip dari berbagai sumber.<<

45 comments:

Anonymous said...

ehm,, ehm,,, berarti orang indonesia yang ngerayain valentine termasuk orang NDESO ya kalo mas tukul bilang. soalnya pada nggak tau apa2 tentang asal usulnya. bisanya cuma ikut2an. saya meng himbau, jangan main ikut2an. tapi lihat sejarahnya dulu. bila bagus and sejalan dengan kebudayaan bangsa indonesia n pancasila ga papa. OK!!!!!



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Taqin said...

Numpang minta referensinya, semoga bermanfaat....

alvin said...

wah bagus mas bahasannya

Mey Lumbantoruan said...

wah, thanks 4 ur info. Jadi gitu toh,, byk juga iya sejarah'x. Slama ini valentine-an sama aja spt hari2 biasa. Yah, krn w m'anggap smw hari sama. Event,cara b'pola pikir,&suasana hati ssorg aja yg mbuat bbda. Jadi'x, tkesan sesuatu, ex. Valentine day, spesial/gak penting. Every day is same, God made it 4us to ALWAYS GIVE THANKS FOR ALL OF DAY;)

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